I had the pleasure of attending the HomebrewCon held in Grand Rapids, Michigan several years ago. If you didn’t have the chance to go, or even if you did, the AHA provides seminar recordings for that conference. In fact they provide recordings going all the way back to 2012’s conference. This is a member’s only benefit. If you’re not a member of the AHA, I think you should consider joining. Access to conference materials is only one of many benefits. Join now – Looking for a deal?
One of the sessions I attended was Tom Schmidlin’s “Draft System Design and Maintenance”. Having built several kegerators over the years, clarification – several iterations of the same kegerator, I feel like a know a fair bit about putting together a system. Many things were re-affirmations of lessons I’ve learned. I did pick up a few new tips. Thank you to Tom Schmidlin for putting on this great presentation!
Note that all of these ideas are not exactly notes from Tom’s presentation. I specifically note items that I recall picking up from him. All two”What I learned about Draft Dispensing at NHC” are from Tom’s presentation.
On to setting your temperatures and pressures and balancing your system…
Temperature and Pressure:
The carbonation level of your beer is a function of your CO2 PSI and your kegerator temperature. The colder your kegerator, the more CO2 your beer will absorb. You need to decide two things: How cold do I want my beer to be and what carbonation level do I want to serve it at.
1. Carbonation Level. Typically expressed in volumes of dissolved CO2. Check out the BJCP’s style guidelines for a starting point. The guidelines give general terms like low, moderately low, high, very high, etc. Other more specific charts and tools are also available. Most recipe formulation tools have guidelines or tools on the subject including BeerSmith.
2. Temperature. Tom said that most bars serve between 34 and 38 deg F. Of course, this is a personal preference.
After you have determined carbonation level and temperature you’d like you can use a carbonation chart or calculator to determine what pressure you need to store your beer at.
Click To Enlarge. This graphic is found all around the web. I believe that credit goes to the great John Palmer of How to Brew fame although I’m not 100% certain.
Example: If you’d like your beer to be 38 degrees and you want 2.4 volumes of CO2, you would find 38 degrees on the far left hand column and then follow it over to the right until you find something similar to 2.4. After you have located that, follow that column up and you’ll find your required storage and serving PSI. In this case, 10 PSI.
Balancing Your System:
Now that you have your beer at your preferred temperature and carbonation level you need to be able to dispense it at the proper speed and without excessive foam. A common goal is 1 gallon per minute or about 2 ounces per second. That’s accomplished by balancing your system. Essentially, you want to offset most of the pressure (all but about 1 PSI) that is required to store and carbonate your beer with resistance in your system. Everything on the liquid side of your system counts toward this resistance.
Some resistance estimations…
Tubing – credit goes to the Draught Quality Manual for these figures:
- Vinyl 3/16” ID 3.00 lbs/ft
- Vinyl 1/4” ID 0.85 lbs/ft
- Vinyl 5/16” ID 0.40 lbs/ft
- Vinyl 3/8” ID 0.20 lbs/ft
- Vinyl 1/2” ID 0.025 lbs/ft
- Barrier 1/4” ID 0.30 lbs/
- Barrier 5/16” ID 0.10 lbs/ft
- Barrier 3/8” ID 0.06 lbs/ft
- Stainless 1/4” OD 1.20 lbs/ft
- Stainless 5/16” OD 0.30 lbs/ft
- Stainless 3/8” OD 0.12 lbs/ft
Note: Most Homebrewers that I know use either 1/4″ or 3/16″ ID Vinyl with the majority of those using 3/16″ ID Vinyl. Lower resistance options are typically used by commercial establishments that are usually trying to reduce resistance.
Note: More Beer has recently EJ Beverage’s Line of PVC Free, Antibacterial, Low Permeability Tubing. Each of those options include estimated lbs of restriction per foot.
- Standard Faucet and Shank – Tom estimates .5 lbs for these items
- Picnic or Cobra Faucet – .5 lbs
- Rise in elevation – .5lbs/ft of rise, measured from the center of the keg
Example: Continuing our previous example, we had our pressure set to 10 PSI. Everything on the liquid side of the system counts toward the system’s resistance. Let’s say you’re using a picnic tap and 3/16″ ID Tubing.
Picnic Tap = .5 lbs
Estimated Rise from Center of Keg = 2 ft = 1 lb
Total = 1.5 lbs of resistance
That leaves us 7.5 lbs that we need to use up. We’re using 3/16″ ID Tubing (3 lbs/ft). We’ll need a total of 2.5 ft of tubing to offset the required pressure.
The total system looks like this…
Picnic Tap = .5 lbs
Estimated Rise from Center of Keg = 2 ft = 1 lb
2.5 ft of 3/16″ ID Tubing = 7.5 lbs
Total = 9 lbs of resistance
Remaining = 1 PSI to serve beer
But wait… you should double the length of the tubing. Why you ask?…
What I learned about Draft Dispensing at NHC #1 – “Estimates aren’t always right”
Estimations for the resistance of vinyl tubing per foot are… wrong. Practically I’ve know this for years. Some time ago I tried to serve a Hefeweizen at traditional carbonation levels (3.6 to 4.5 volumes of CO2) using these figures. Didn’t work. Tom’s suggestion: Double the amount of vinyl tubing called for and trim until you get an acceptable flow rate of about 1 gallon per hour and a good pour. Along those lines, Tom also suggested buying your tubing in 100 foot rolls.
I received two more revelations…
What I learned about Draft Dispensing at NHC #2 – “Longer Shank = Less Foam”
A longer shank means… a colder faucet. More mass inside your kegerator or keezer keeps your faucet colder and reduces foam.
Serving Beers with Multiple Carbonation Levels:
If you want to serve beers at different pressures you’ll need multiple regulators…
This is a secondary regulator meaning that it has no high pressure gauge or connection. This hooks on to your existing primary regulator and allows you to serve additional pressures. You get one pressure per secondary regulator body.
Tip: you can get one additional pressure out of a primary/secondary regulator setup. Set your primary regulator to your highest desired pressure level, put in a T or manifold on the primary outlet and feed the secondary from there.
A five way secondary via Brew Hardware is pictured. Brew Hardware has a great selection of Primary and Secondary regulators at generally great prices.
Taprite Two Pressure (3 Gauge) CO2 regulator. Both valves have valves. Features adjustment knobs for easy pressure adjustment. 1/4″ MFL connections.
This is a double bodied regulator. It allows you to serve at two carbonation levels. I currently use a double bodied regulator. I feed a manifold off one regulator with what I’ll call my standard or house carbonation level – and have a single line going off the other regulator for beers that I want to serve at a different carbonation level or for force carbing a keg at a higher pressure.
If you simply want to split one of your pressures for use in multiple kegs, a manifold will do the trick. These give you multiple tubing runs, have integrated check valves to prevent cross contamination and have valves to control each link. The list of things that grow with you in homebrewing is… short. You can’t add on two gallons to your brew kettle. This expandable manifold system from More Beer is one thing that will actually grow with you. Check out my Hands on Review of this great system.
Additional Resources and Related Products:
- Recent Keg Finds – our most recent keg finds
- Our Top Draft and Kegerator Resource Pages
- Upgrade Your Kegerator – 6 Improvement Ideas
- Home Brew Keg Roundup – New & Used, 5 and 2.5 Gallon & More!
- What’s the Difference Between Ball Lock Kegs and Pin Lock Kegs?
- Tips & Gear for Your Kegerator Resource Page – a collection of tips and gear for putting together your kegerator
- Kegerator Beer Line Temperatures & Reducing Foam with a Recirculating Fan
- Portable Draft Serving Options
- The Draught Quality Manual
- Ball Lock Kegging System via Adventures in Homebrewing
- Review: Inkbird Dual Stage Temp Controller
- Bulk Keg Orings and Keg Repair Part Numbers
- 5 Gallon Ball Lock Keg – via AIH
- Draft Landing Pages: More Beer – AIH – Keg Connection – William’s Brewing
- Review: Mark’s Keg and Carboy Washer
- Step by Step: Finding and Fixing Keg CO2 Leaks
- Build A Recirculating Draft Line Cleaning Pump
- Mark II Keg & Carboy Cleaner… As a Recirculating Draft Line Cleaning Pump
- The BJCP’s Style Guidelines
- EJ Beverage Tubing
- Kegland Keg King Homebrew Kegerators – Hands on Review
- Eva-dry E-500 for Kegerator Condensation – Hands On Review
- Checking for Draft System CO2 Leaks – Using The Pressure Gauge Method
- Tips and Gear for Growler Filling
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